The initial treatment for substance addiction and abuse focuses on pharmacological treatment, with withdrawal and anti-craving medication, which vary according to the substance abuse to be treated: typical and atypical neuroleptics (haloperidol, zuclopenthixol, clotiapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole ); anxiolytics (diazepam, lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, chlordiazepoxide, oxazepam); antidepressants (SSRIs, SNRIs); symptomatic drugs (pain killers, antiemetic, antiarrhythmics, antihypertensive and vitamin complexes).

Pharmacological therapy should be supported by a psychotherapeutic plan. In cases of severe abuse and discomfort, hospitalisation is required as it allows for the formulation of more personalised pharmacological therapy through daily monitoring of the patient’s clinical status in a safe and supportive environment