Other personality disorders

Narcissistic Personality Disorder indicates a condition characterised by grandiosity, with the affected person manifesting excessive and unrealistic self-confidence and faith in his/her abilities. People with this condition tend to exaggerate their merits and abilities, indulging in fantasies of successes and triumphs induced by the certainty of their uniqueness, which leads to their expectation of unconditioned admiration from people around them.

Histrionic Personality Disorder is characterised by the tendency to express emotions which are often fickle, superficial, and unpredictable in an excessive and theatrical manner. Their relationships are affected by an insatiable need for attention, which is often obtained by means of exaggerated behaviour (playing the fool or being a “prima donna”), or even a sexually provocative, seductive attitude, accompanied by an excessive emphasis on physical appearance.

Antisocial Personality Disorder is characterised by a constant violation of the rights of others and behaviour that transgresses common social rules and often borders on illegality, from which the patient derives benefits or fun, without feeling regret or remorse.

Paranoid Personality Disorder is characterised by a pattern of irrational suspicion and mistrust of others; the person affected is convinced that the world is a threatening place and people around them (even family members) will eventually betray or deceive them. The patient often misinterprets other people’s behaviours, perceiving humiliating or malevolent intentions hidden in innocent gestures or phrases.

Schizoid Personality and Schizotypal Personality Disorders become manifest when the person affected shows total apathy, restricted emotional expression and a lack of interest in and detachment from social relationships. With no friends or personal relationships, which they seem to avoid, Schizoid or Schizotypal patients prefer solitary activities (reading, individual sports, the internet). In the schizotypal variant, bizarre, unconventional, paranormal or magical beliefs (i.e. clairvoyance, telepathy, etc.) also become manifest.

Avoidant Personality Disorder leads individuals to social exclusion, which is caused by a deep fear of inadequacy and rejection. Although the subjects would really love to have friends and personal relationships, the fear of derision makes it impossible, to the point that they often find it intolerable to work in a social environment.

In the case of a Dependant Personality Disorder, the subject constantly seeks a relationship in which they will feel protected and cared for, tending towards submission and harbouring an intense fear of separation. Individuals affected by this disorder are insecure, unable to fulfil tasks, or even to make ordinary choices, which they delegate to the person they depend upon.

Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder is characterised by an overly rigorous approach, acute perfectionism and obsessive tidiness. Their excessive attention to detail usually leads subjects to invest such an exaggerated amount of time in programming and organisation that they lose sight of their final goals.